Domestic Hardwoods

Hickory

image15

Common Name(s): Shellbark Hickory
Scientific Name: Carya laciniosa
Distribution: Eastern United States
Tree Size: 100-130 ft (30-40 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 48 lbs/ft3 (770 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .62, .77
Janka Hardness:1,810 lbf (8,100 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 18,100 lbf/in2 (124.8 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,890,000 lbf/in2 (13.03 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 8,000 lbf/in2 (55.2 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 7.6%, Tangential: 12.6%, Volumetric: 19.2%, T/R Ratio: 1.7

The heartwood tends to be light to medium brown, with a reddish hue; sapwood is a paler yellowish brown. Boards with contrasting heartwood and sapwood create a somewhat rustic appearance that’s sometimes marketed as Calico Hickory.

Birch

image16

Common Name(s): Yellow Birch
Scientific Name: Betula alleghaniensis
Distribution: Northeastern North America
Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameter
Average Dried Weight: 43 lbs/ft3 (690 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .55, .69
Janka Hardness: 1,260 lbf (5,610 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 16,600 lbf/in2 (114.5 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 2,010,000 lbf/in2 (13.86 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 8,170 lbf/in2 (56.3 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 7.3%, Tangential: 9.5%, Volumetric: 16.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.3

The heartwood tends to be a light reddish brown, with nearly white sapwood. Occasionally figured pieces are available with a wide, shallow curl similar to the curl found in Cherry. There is virtually no color distinction between annual growth rings, giving Birch a somewhat dull, uniform appearance.

Walnut

image17

Common Name(s): Black Walnut
Scientific Name: Juglans nigra
Distribution: Eastern United States
Tree Size: 100-120 ft (30-37 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 38 lbs/ft3 (610 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .51, .61
Janka Hardness: 1,010 lbf (4,490 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 14,600 lbf/in2 (100.7 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,680,000 lbf/in2 (11.59 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 7,580 lbf/in2 (52.3 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 5.5%, Tangential: 7.8%, Volumetric: 12.8%, T/R Ratio: 1.4

The heartwood can range from a lighter pale brown to a dark chocolate brown with darker brown streaks. Color can sometimes have a grey, purple, or reddish cast. Sapwood is pale yellow-gray to nearly white. Figured grain patterns such as curl, crotch, and burl are also seen.

Poplar

image18

Common Name(s): Poplar, Tulip Poplar, Yellow Poplar
Scientific Name: Liriodendron tulipifera
Distribution: Eastern United States
Tree Size: 130-160 ft (40-50 m) tall, 6-8 ft (1.8-2.5 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 29 lbs/ft3 (455 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .40, .46
Janka Hardness:540 lbf (2,400 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 10,100 lbf/in2 (69.7 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,580,000 lbf/in2 (10.90 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 5,540 lbf/in2 (38.2 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 4.6%, Tangential: 8.2%, Volumetric: 12.7%, T/R Ratio: 1.8

The heartwood is light cream to yellowish brown, with occasional streaks of gray or green. Sapwood is pale yellow to white, not always clearly demarcated from the heartwood. Can also be seen in mineral stained colors ranging from dark purple to red, green, or yellow, sometimes referred to as Rainbow Poplar.Colors tend to darken upon exposure to light.

Red Oak

image19

Common Name(s): Red Oak
Scientific Name: Quercus rubra
Distribution: Northeastern United States and Southeastern Canada
Tree Size: 80-115 ft (25-35 m) tall, 3-6 ft (1-2 m) trunk diameter
Average Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (700 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .56, .70
Janka Hardness:1,220 lbf (5,430 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 14,380 lbf/in2 (99.2 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,761,000 lbf/in2 (12.14 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 6,780 lbf/in2 (46.8 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 4.0%, Tangential: 8.6%, Volumetric: 13.7%, T/R Ratio: 2.2

The color of Red Oak varies to the region in which the tree has grown. Banks prides itself with high quality Red Oak from the Northern Region. Red Oak is straight grained with a course textures and prominent rays. Its color is reddish tan heartwood and narrow, almost white sapwood.

White Oak

image20

Common Name(s): White Oak
Scientific Name: Quercus alba
Distribution: Eastern United States
Tree Size: 65-85 ft (20-25 m) tall, 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 47 lbs/ft3 (755 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .60, .75
Janka Hardness: 1,350 lbf (5,990 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 14,830 lbf/in2 (102.3 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,762,000 lbf/in2 (12.15 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 7,370 lbf/in2 (50.8 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 5.6%, Tangential: 10.5%, Volumetric: 16.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.9

White Oak, like Red Oak grows broadly across the eastern half of the United States. Although in smaller quantities than Red Oak, White Oak is a ring porous species with a characteristic strong grain and rays that are more pronounced and longer than those in Red Oaks. The heartwood is light to medium tan; the sapwood is creamy-white.

Soft Maple

image21

Common Name(s): Red Maple
Scientific Name: Acer rubrum
Distribution: Eastern North America
Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 38lbs/ft3 (610 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .49, .61
Janka Hardness: 950 lbf (4,230 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 13,400 lbf/in2 (92.4 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,640,000 lbf/in2 (11.31 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 6,540 lbf/in2 (45.1 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 4.0%, Tangential: 8.2%, Volumetric: 12.6%, T/R Ratio: 2.1

Unlike most other hardwoods, the sapwood of maple lumber is most commonly used rather than its heartwood. Sapwood color ranges from almost white, to a light golden or reddish brown, while the heartwood is a darker reddish brown. Red Maple can also be seen with curly or quilted grain patterns.

Hard Maple

image22

Common Name(s): Hard Maple, Sugar Maple, Rock MapleScientific Name: Acer saccharum
Distribution: Northeastern North America
Tree Size: 80-115 ft (25-35 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1.0 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 44 lbs/ft3 (705 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .56, .71
Janka Hardness:15,800 lbf/in2 (109.0 MPa)
Modulus of Rupture: 15,800 lbf/in2 (109.0 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,830,000 lbf/in2 (12.62 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 7,830 lbf/in2 (54.0 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 4.8%, Tangential: 9.9%, Volumetric: 14.7%, T/R Ratio: 2.1

Unlike most other hardwoods, the sapwood of Hard Maple lumber is most commonly used rather than its heartwood. Sapwood color ranges from nearly white, to an off-white cream color, sometimes with a reddish or golden hue. The heartwood tends to be a darker reddish brown. Birdseye Maple is a figure found most commonly in Hard Maple, though it’s also found less frequently in other species. Hard Maple can also be seen with curly or quilted grain patterns.

Ash

image23

Common Name(s): White Ash, American White Ash
Scientific Name: Fraxinus americana
Distribution: Eastern North America
Tree Size: 65-100 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-5 ft (.6-1.5 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 42 lbs/ft3 (675 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .55, .67
Janka Hardness: 1,320 lbf (5,870 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 15,000 lbf/in2 (103.5 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,740,000 lbf/in2 (12.00 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 7,410 lbf/in2 (51.1 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 4.9%, Tangential: 7.8%, Volumetric: 13.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.6

The color of ash is somewhat lustrous; cream to very light brown heartwood with lighter colored sapwood. Ash has a straight moderately open grain.

Cherry

image24

Common Name(s): Black Cherry, Cherry, American CherryScientific Name: Prunus serotina
Distribution: Eastern North America
Tree Size: 50-100 ft (15-30 m) tall, 3-5 ft (1-1.5 m) trunk diameterAverage Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (560 kg/m3)

Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .47, .56
Janka Hardness: 950 lbf (4,230 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 12,300 lbf/in2 (84.8 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,490,000 lbf/in2 (10.30 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 7,110 lbf/in2 (49.0 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 3.7%, Tangential: 7.1%, Volumetric: 11.5%, T/R Ratio: 1.9

The heartwood is a light pinkish brown when freshly cut, darkening to a medium reddish brown with time and upon exposure to light. Sapwood is a pale yellowish color.